Lecture notes on Thermodynamics, A course for engineers, By Hasan Maridi, 2018.

The science of thermodynamics studies the relationship between heat and other forms of energy such as mechanical and chemical energy, and others. Thermodynamics played a pivotal and essential role in the invention of the steam machine, the gasoline engine, and ways to increase their efficiency, the invention of dry batteries, and the generation of electricity from coal and gas stations and nuclear reactors. Therefore, the course of thermodynamics is a basic course in all departments of the faculties of science and engineering. This science is considered an important branch of the many branches of physics. Therefore, we made a great effort and time in drafting a short lecture note on thermodynamics for our students in the various engineering departments. It contains enough solved problems for each sub-topic or partial concept, as well as unsolved problems and exercises in each topic so that students can think about and solve them. It includes more than 65 illustrations and nearly 60 solved problems, covering all parts of the course. The course information and questions were collected from several references, and you can find them on the last page of the book.


Chapter 1 Temperature

Chapter 2 Kinetic molecular theory of ideal gas

Chapter 3 Heat

Chapter 4 Work and first law of thermodynamic

Chapter 5 Thermochemistry

Chapter 6 Second law of thermodynamics

Chapter 7 Heat engines

Chapter 8 Chemical equilibrium

Chapter 9 Electrochemistry

To download the complete lectures from here or here.

The solved problems depend on:

Physical Chemistry, 4th Edition, by Keith J. Laidler,‎ John H. Meiser ,‎ Bryan C. Sanctuary

You can download these solved problems related to our topics from:

Chapter 1: The Nature of Physical Chemistry and Kinetic Theory of Gases

Chapter 2: The First Law of Thermodynamics

Chapter 3:The Second and Third Laws of Thermodynamics

Chapter 4: Chemical Equilibrium

Chapter 8: Electrochemical Cells


Chapter 1 Temperature

1.1 Temperature

1.2 Thermal equilibrium

1.3 Zeroth law of thermodynamics

1.4 Thermometers

1.5 Temperature scales

1.6 Thermal expansion

Chapter 2 Kinetic molecular theory of ideal gas

2.1 Properties of gases

2.2 The gas laws

2.3 Kinetic molecular theory

2.4 Real gases

Chapter 3 Heat

3.1 Heat

3.2 Specific heat

3.3 Calorimetry

3.4 Latent heat

3.5 Heat transfer

Chapter 4 Work and first law of thermodynamics

4.1 Internal energy

4.2 Systems and surroundings

4.3 Volume- pressure work

4.4 First law of thermodynamics

4.5 Special processes

Chapter 5 Thermochemistry

5.1 Enthalpy

5.2 Molar specific heats

5.3 Measurements of enthalpy changes

5.4 Constant volume calorimeter

5.5 Constant pressure calorimeter

5.6 The standard reaction enthalpy

5.7 Hess’s law

Chapter 6 Second law of thermodynamics

6.1 Spontaneous processes

6.2 Second law of thermodynamics

6.3 Entropy

6.4 Third law of thermodynamics

6.5 Gibbs free energy

Chapter 7 Heat engines

7.1 Heat engine

7.2 Thermal efficiency of a heat engine

7.3 Perfect heat engine

7.4 Carnot engine

7.5 Carnot cycle

Chapter 8 Chemical equilibrium

8.1 Chemical equilibrium

8.2 The law of mass action

8.3 The reaction quotient

8.4 Free energy and equilibrium constant

Chapter 9 Electrochemistry

9.1 Electrochemical cells

9.2 The cell potential

9.3 Standard electrode potentials

9.4 The thermodynamics of electrochemical cells

Appendix a key concepts